About time or out of line? Federal government intervenes in school discipline practices

Paul E. Peterson is professor of government and director of the Harvard Program on Education Policy at the Harvard Kennedy School. He’s also a senior fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University.

In a column, he discusses the federal government’s expanding role in student discipline.

First some background: The federal government became involved in school discipline in response to mounds of research showing black students are disciplined more often and more severely than white students even for similar transgressions.

An AJC investigation last year found while black students comprised 37 percent of the 1.7 million Georgia students in the 2012-13 school year, they accounted for 57 percent of students expelled and 67 percent given out-of-school suspensions.

White students made up 43 percent of students enrolled, 31 percent of students expelled and 21 percent of those suspended.

This AJC chart shows the disparity:

WEB_discipline

With that background on Georgia’s data, here is Peterson’s piece:

By Paul E. Peterson

In January 2014 the Obama Administration’s Departments of Justice and Education, acting together, sent each school district a letter asking local officials to avoid racial bias when suspending or expelling students. The letter said that African-American students receive about 35% of one-time suspensions and about 36% of school expulsions, even though they comprise only about 15% of those attending public schools.

The Departments, referencing the Civil Rights Act of 1965, gave school districts new “guidance,” telling them they risked legal action if school disciplinary policies had “a disparate impact, i.e., a disproportionate and unjustified effect on students of a particular race.”

Attorney General Eric Holder explained that guidance is needed because current school-district policies, “however well-intentioned they might be, make students feel unwelcome in their own schools; they disrupt the learning process.”

Secretary of Education Arne Duncan claims that racial discrimination in the administration of discipline is “a real problem today — it’s not just an issue from 30 or 40 or 50 years ago.”

But Richard Epstein, a legal expert at the University of Chicago, questions the legal basis for the federal guidance, saying that it “represents the worst in federal policy on K–12 education” in that it is using a dubious, extreme interpretation of the Civil Rights Act for which there is no clear legal precedent “to federalize all issues of discipline in the nation’s schools.”

But does the Obama Administration’s new policy have broad-based support?

To find out, we have asked nationally representative cross-sections of parents, teachers, and the American public as a whole (as part of the 9th annual Education Next survey conducted in May and June of 2015) whether they support or oppose “federal policies that prevent schools from expelling or suspending black and Hispanic students at higher rates than other students?”

Only 23% of parents favor the Obama Administration’s new policy, while 54% oppose it, with the remainder responding that they neither support nor oppose the idea. Among the public as whole, opposition is just about as large, with 51% opposing “no-disparate-impact,” while just 21% back the idea.

A majority in favor of federal involvement in discipline cannot be found among either Democrats or Republicans.  Only 29% of Democrats like the new federal ruling, while barely 11% of Republicans give it their support.

Teachers are even more opposed to federal involvement in school discipline. No less than 59% of teachers oppose federally mandated “no-disparate impact,” while only 23% say they favor it.

Within the African-American community, a plurality of support for the federal policy is found: 41% in favor, 23% opposed.  But whites are overwhelmingly against an expanded federal role in setting school discipline standards.  Just 14% favor the new federal policy, while 57% oppose it.  Among Hispanic respondents, those against federal “guidance” on school disciplinary matters out-number supporters by a 44% to 31% margin.

 

Reader Comments 0

136 comments
NATIVE_ATL
NATIVE_ATL

I live in Henry County.  My 7th grade daughter was place in In School Suspension for hitting her fellow classmate hand when he told her he had a bee in it.  What the school didn't know was that I'm deathly allergic to shellfish and have a cousin that's deathly allergic to bee stings went into anaphalactix shock in front of us - I had my pen with me.  I explained to her principal - reminded her that my daughter is not only an great student, but avoids our front door at all cost because or flowers and schurbs. It's not something the other child should have even joked about.   My solution - put him in ISS also or take mine out. They put him in.  His parents asked for a conference.  I explained my position and his dad SLAPPED him on the spot.  Had it been me doing the slapping,  I would have been in jail.  In other words did my daughter deserve to be a statistic?

BurroughstonBroch
BurroughstonBroch

According to the US Department of Justice, blacks accounted for 52.5% of homicide offenders from 1980 to 2008, with whites 45.3% and "Other" 2.2%. The offending rate for blacks was almost 8 times higher than whites, and the victim rate 6 times higher.

Blacks are 13.2% of the US population.

School children follow the example set by their elders. The results of this "study" are mild compared to the homicide statistics.

Lee_CPA2
Lee_CPA2

@BurroughstonBroch

During that time frame, hispanics were routinely included in the white statistics.  Given that hispanics commit violent crime at a multiple of the white crime rate (although not as nearly as bad as the black crime rate), the difference in crime rates between whites and blacks are much larger than the numbers you presented.

Lee_CPA2
Lee_CPA2

This whole topic is so off-base it would be funny except for the fact that if you tell a lie often and long enough, it will soon become accepted as the truth.

The "disproportionate impact" concept has been around for years and the politically correct, equal outcomes sociopaths will trot it out every so often to see if it gains traction.  About twenty years ago, a similar "disparate impact" concept took root and the mortgage lending practices were changed.  The resulting housing meltdown of 2008 was a direct result of the federals interjecting their misplaced priorities on the market.

So, we see that blacks are disciplined at a rate 400-500% more than whites and asians.  The author would have us believe that hundreds of thousands of educators across the nation are all working in sync to conspire against the blacks.   Give me a break.   Given the prevalent politically correct attitude in which leftist whites will do anything to not appear "racist", there is probably a lot more black behavior that should have been elevated to discipline, but was not.  In other words, that table probably doesn't give an accurate representation of the true nature of black dysfunction in today's schools - it is a lot worse than that table indicates.

In a hypothetical classroom of 25 students, it only takes one miscreant to disrupt the learning of the other 24.  Forgive me if I don't get all worked up when the miscreant gets his well deserved, and EARNED, punishment.

Astropig
Astropig

@Lee_CPA2



"The author would have us believe that hundreds of thousands of educators across the nation are all working in sync to conspire against the blacks. "


How about it ladies? (statistically, you're likely female)  Are you getting together in secret conclaves (klaverns?) and bringing the pain to black students more often than is warranted? Lee is right on the money here.This whole debate simply cannot advance until this question is addressed.

thenoticer
thenoticer

@Lee_CPA2 Why compare to whites? The discrepancy between blacks and Asians is even larger. Why aren't they up in arms about that? Why can we accept that Asians behave better than blacks but not whites? Getting very tired of this never being addressed.

Astropig
Astropig

@thenoticer @Lee_CPA2


"The discrepancy between blacks and Asians is even larger. Why aren't they up in arms about that? "


Because there is no practical way to exploit that politically.

CSpinks
CSpinks

Might the Feds intervene to inject some backbone into local school board attorneys who complacently ignore the role of deteriorating discipline in the decline of GaPubEd classrooms as places of teaching and learning, especially in schools serving poor kids?


Media reports had suggested that "educational opportunity for poor kids" was going to be the civil rights issue of the day. The negative effects of classroom and school climates unsuitable to teaching upon the academic achievement of poor kids are inarguable. But where are the efforts to improve those climates and to raise those knowledge and skill levels among poor students? To what extent do the "I got mine; let 'em get theirs" and "you can't teach them n------ and c------ anything anyway" attitudes play roles in the lack of energy and effort devoted to the problem of low learning levels among GA students who are poor?


Must I conclude that, once again, lip service is paid to issues impacting educational opportunities provided the poor while more minds of poor kids are being wasted everyday?


Does anybody care?

Carlos_Castillo
Carlos_Castillo

If there's disproportionate over-disciplining of African-American children going on, much of it is taking place in urban schools where the students, administrators and teacher corps are all overwhelmingly African-American. 


Under these circumstances, I'd like to hear more from the administrators and teachers.  I'm sure they know that out-of-school suspensions amount to vacations for those students whose parents are permanently out-to-lunch. Why do they do it?   My guess is that they will point to lots of causes involving resource shortages not directly related to racial prejudice, the addressing of which would help reduce the disparity.


I'd like to know whether the numbers differ in those schools that have formal disciplinary tribunals, as many do in GA.  


I'd also like to know whether the numbers differ in those schools where there is structured community participation in school discipline.


Reducing school discipline to race-based quotas based on diverse impact theories, which is where this will go if not re-examined, strikes me as the worst possible direction to take.  Alas, it strikes me as akin to the crude by-the-numbers approach that linked pay and promotion to standardized test results at APS, as implemented by Dr. Beverly Hall -- with a similarly foreseeable outcome.











MaryElizabethSings
MaryElizabethSings

I John 4:18 - 19:

"There is no fear in love; but perfect love casts out fear, because fear involves punishment, and the one who fears is not perfected in love. We love, because He first loved us.…"

MaryElizabethSings
MaryElizabethSings

@redweather 

You limit your own consciousness through your generalizations of thought and through your biases.  I do not support the woman in  Kentucky with her religious dogma perceptions, either. Spiritual evolution of humankind is what this world needs to heal and to grow spiritually, however, and that must contain love.  Did you know that Jefferson created his own Bible just of Jesus' teachings and wisdom although he did not believe in miracles in the Bible, nor the Virgin Birth, nor the resurrection?


I am not a fundamentalist Christian, but I believe in spiritual evolution of humankind and my spiritual beliefs do not overlap with those of Jefferson altogether, but like Jefferson I am not afraid of thinking in unorthodox ways, unique to me.  Can you do that?  I am both a Christian and a Buddhist.  Your post surprises me.  Aren't you a college professor?  Do you understand what I perceive and mean by a "spiritual evolution of consciousness"?

MaryElizabethSings
MaryElizabethSings

@redweather 

I meant no condescension to you, redweather.  I was simply surprised at your rejection of the Bible as fostering spiritual growth in any manner and I wanted to explain why, and not assume that you understood my thinking.

Moreover, I was surprised at your name calling.  I seems to me that you are trying to blame me for your having indulged in that.  Assume that responsibility for yourself, please. 


As I have often stated on this blog, I believe in education, not indoctrination.  I give my own points of view (spiritually and intellectually) as a springboard for others to weigh and grow in their own ongoing spiritual and intellectual development, quite aside from what I might have found to be truths in my own journey.

MaryElizabethSings
MaryElizabethSings

@redweather 

Okay, but it is still name-calling if you are intellectually honest.


Moreover, imo, you are seeing me in gross ways, not nuanced ways, just as you appeared to perceive words from the Bible. 

redweather
redweather

@MaryElizabethSings Oh brother.  You quote John and that nutball in Kentucky chooses to sit in jail rather than issue marriage licenses. The Bible is not the answer.

redweather
redweather

@MaryElizabethSings @redweather Calling you a tiresome pontificator is my way of being descriptive.  I do find many of your posts tiresome because in my view you do tend to pontificate.

redweather
redweather

@MaryElizabethSings @redweather You bring out the worst in some of us. Scale back your condescending tone and this might not happen as often. I don't think anyone questions your allegiance to various ideas, but you always sound as if you've just come down from the mountain top.

Quidocetdiscit
Quidocetdiscit

I have no doubt that there is some validity to these studies, and that overall black students may be punished more often or more severely for the same infractions. I have seen it occur.  (Oddly, it was often the black teachers who were hardest on students of color.)  However, I would like more in depth information...like how often did that discipline follow a pattern of behavior. I taught in several low SES, inner city schools, and frequently black students would be punished for an infraction that might not have garnered such a punishment if it had been an isolated incident, but instead it was more like the final straw of some teacher.  There are also social cultural issues involved.  We had students from rival gangs in our schools, and students would often escalate a situation because capitulating to a teacher request could be seen as losing face in front of those from rival factions.  Often there are far deeper issues involved that just a misbehaving student.  There are complex reasons as to WHY some students act up  and often it involved situations and conditions outside the purview of the school.


Granted, my evidence is anecdotal, but I do know what happens when schools are told to refrain from disciplining certain groups of students, and it is not good!  Been there and done that.  My school was told we were writing up to many African American males, and to stop sending in so many referrals.  Well, it didn't take the students long to figure out they could get away with just about anything...as a result we had a pregnant kindergarten teacher kicked in the stomach and a 4th grade teacher stabbed with scissors through the  chest wall.  I myself was hit over the head with a wooden chair and the child was back in class the next day because we had met our quote of African American males for the month.  Frankly, it was chaos and was unsafe for everyone, including students who were punched, kicked and mistreated by those who had come to understand that "discipline" meant a trip to the office for a "talk" and then back to class. If the school had put some alternative plan into place, perhaps this would not have occurred, but by just saying, "Stop writing them up" teachers were left floundering.


My concerns with a federally mandated discipline system is that it could too easily become similar to what I experienced at those schools - where some "formula" is used to determine what percentage of  students of color can be disciplined without taking into account individual schools and the differences among SES groups, school racial make-up, teachers, school climate, expectations, home environments, etc.  I worry that schools might end up failing to discipline students who should be disciplined for fear of violating some general mandate imposed across the board.  Once students understand there are no repercussions for their behavior, there will be a percentage of them who will take advantage and go for broke.  Unfortunately, these tend to be your troublesome students anyway - and they will really fly off the chain.  This behavior is not necessarily related to race - ANY child has the tendency to push the envelope.  Certainly we have all hear, "Give them an inch...."


Having said all that, punishment alone is not necessarily going to ever solve the problems.  Students who have little discipline at home have trouble understanding school restrictions.  Students who are feeling marginalized and belittled are full of anger that can be expressed through misbehavior.  Students without positive role models in their lives may be drawn to negative role models.  Students who have no hope for the future, see little reason to toe the line.  Without interventions like counseling, positive reinforcement and family support, many of these behavior problems will remain chronic.  If we can get to these children in the younger grades, we might have a chance of helping them overcome their difficulties and become more positively engaged int he classroom.  However, I suspect that a federal discipline program will not necessarily include alternatives to traditional 'punishment" but will rather just set down general rules of who can and can't be disciplined.  Schools CAN engage in alternative programs.  I have been through one such program which was highly successful at our school, but it took a few years to totally implement, required buy in by ALL the faculty and lots of training time.  I fear most districts will not invest the time and money required to put such programs into place.



MaryElizabethSings
MaryElizabethSings

@Quidocetdiscit 

Excellent, nuanced awareness that is on target.  I must add that if "(s)chools CAN engage in alternative programs (for disciplinary purposes). . .which was highly successful at our school, but it took a few years to totally implement, required buy in by ALL the faculty and lots of training time," then traditional public schools can also engage in alternative programs for instructional purposes such as continuous progress instruction, grades 1 - 7.  I know because I was part of one for a decade.

MaryElizabethSings
MaryElizabethSings

@Quidocetdiscit


I have mixed feelings regarding the federal guidelines for being alert to biased-based disciplinary actions for black students.  Something HAS to be done to stop the "school to prison" road on which many black children find themselves as a part of in our less than fully racially conscious nation.

However, if the teacher/school cannot send, for disciplinary intervention, every students who actually needs it, some students will catch on quickly to the rules of "that game" and play it to their advantage, as you have mentioned. 

Students who need to be disciplined must be disciplined so that the teacher maintains classroom control, but counseling techniques should be attempted first, in the continuum of disciplinary techniques.  That is why I strongly support Georgia's Democratic Legislative Plan for "Community Based Schools" in which medical attention, including counselors and social workers, will be given a major role.  Changing lives, one at a time.

EdJohnson
EdJohnson

“I have been trying to make white people see with my eyes all of my life, and I will continue doing so until I die.  Their perceptions are most of the problem, which they cannot recognize.  (People treat you and see you as you treat and see them.)” --MES

Wisdom such as this is why I sometimes wonder what a conversation between W. Edwards Deming and Martin Luther King, Jr., might have been like.

That which MES offers (highlighted) is that which Deming offered: “A system cannot understand itself, it needs guidance from the outside.”

“Black” America, as embodied in the Civil Rights Movement re King and like-minded others, brought to “White” America needed guidance from the outside.  Bloody Sunday, Edmund Pettus Bridge, Selma, AL, for example.

Still, this rub:  “Black” America as a system cannot understand itself, either, so needs guidance from the outside.  I read here and elsewhere many comments that, at the root, amount to some in “White” America offering some in “Black” America guidance from the outside.

An example that such outside guidance is needed is this situation:  A local “Black” radio talk show host speaks daily of “White” folk as being “refrigerators?”  And “Black” children are listening, and growing up learning to treat people how they themselves would not want to be treated, to MES' point, I suggest.

One day perhaps a beautiful, virtuous dance of partner guiding partner will emerge.

MaryElizabethSings
MaryElizabethSings

@EdJohnson 

You understand my thinking very well.  Thank you for your words.  I believe these words, lifted from the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "I Have A Dream" speech," delivered under the Lincoln Memorial in 1963, give spiritual depth of both of our perceptions:


"I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of 'interposition' and 'nullification' -- one day right there in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.

I have a dream today!

I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, and every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight; 'and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together.' "

class80olddog
class80olddog

I have a dream - where every person is not judged by the color of his/her skin, but the content of his/her character. (Paraphrased)

That means if they are evil, they are judged evil and not let off because there are "too many of one color"

MaryElizabethSings
MaryElizabethSings

@class80olddog 

"Evil" is a strong word to apply to students who need discipline.  We all have the potential for good and evil within our own souls.  It is better to look within, than without, when judging.

ChicagoBJ
ChicagoBJ


I have family and friends who are educators and administrators.The Federal laws such as IDEA and 504 benefit many white students.Educations lawyers are constantly putting out fires for white students to make sure their records stay clean and they are not suspended/expelled.In the affluent schools parents are able to meet and work out solutions with school administrators so the kids are not suspended. They know the laws and they use them.


Many of the Titled 1 schools parents are not educated on what is out there to help their kids.When a black kid is disruptive he is a “thug in the making” when a white kid is disruptive “Johnny has ADHD”.

.   

class80olddog
class80olddog

Yes, you are correct, we should stop excusing white students for "ADHD". At least we put the Cherokee sucker-puncher in jail.

straker
straker

"are locked up at six times the rate"


Maybe that's because their crime rate is six times the White one, 

anothercomment
anothercomment

I am sorry Maureen but my child and the only other white girl on the bus from Nickajack Elementary in Cobb County were called the B word on a daily basis on the bus. Why they were white and lived in nice houses. Then one day my daughter got off the bus with a black eye. I asked her what happened she said one of the girls that regularly called her and the neighbors daughter a B for no reason punched her in the eye. Funny, how the cameras didn't work that day on the bus. If I had been a big fat black welfare mama they would have given me the tapes and I would have been on channel two that the girl in the $600k house punched the section 8 kid. I had already asked the kids why the bus driver didn't do anything, she was the auntie to one of the trouble makers they told me.

This all happened after, my child had already received two concussions at school, that year. From being head butted and being pushed into a fire hydrant. By once again out of control black girls. Nothing was done.

Until I went to the police and filed a police report, did Cobb County schools finally allow my child to transfer to another school.

White children whose parents are paying the majority of the taxes are being deprived of an education.

popcornular
popcornular

Oh please, shut up about this all being racist. Of course white teachers want these disruptions out. They are scared. A black kid will listen/respond to a black teacher. Indeed, fear them. A white teacher will be called a racist every single time - powerless in these situations. You know, the whole 'whitey is bad' philosophy preached from a very young age to certain segments of our population.

The race card is versatile and valuable. It can be used to excuse any type of behavior. But the person it is used against must be white.


Niobe
Niobe

The trouble with all such accusations is that hardly anyone believes them. Most especially middle class blacks desperate to flee inner-city schools and neighborhoods. 

And from President Obama on down, leading liberals are quick to place their own children in private schools. For them, parental choice isn't open to negotiation.

Astropig
Astropig

@Niobe 

" And from President Obama on down, leading liberals are quick to place their own children in private schools. For them, parental choice isn't open to negotiation."

Exactly. Run for something.

AlreadySheared
AlreadySheared

From an editorial in today's WSJ about "Black Lives Matter"


'The reality is that Michael Brown [the unarmed teenager killed in Ferguson Mo] is dead because he robbed a convenience store, assaulted a uniformed officer and then made a move for the officer’s gun.'


It occurs to me that a year or two before his death, Mr. Brown was likely sitting in a high school classroom somewhere.  

I sincerely doubt that, while in history class, he was striving to understand the root causes of the American Revolution.

I find it much more likely that someone who would, a year later, attempt to beat up a policeman was subjected to "disparate" disciplinary measures as a high school student.


MaureenDowney
MaureenDowney moderator

To all,


If you look at the research on this issue -- and there is plenty of it -- you will find consistent results that show black kids pay a higher price for missteps, starting with dress code violations. 


I always point out these findings as they are compelling: This is from a federal study: 


African-American children with no previous time in a juvenile facility are locked up at six times the rate of white kids charged with similar offenses. Looking only at drug cases, the admission rate of black kids to juvenile detention centers is 48 times the rate for whites.

The gap continues once kids are jailed. African-American children are incarcerated an average of 85 days longer than white youth, and Latinos are incarcerated an average of more than 140 days longer than white youth.


Here is a good article to read on the disparate responses of schools to behavioral problems: 


http://nymag.com/scienceofus/2015/08/white-kids-get-meds-black-kids-get-suspended.html#

Looking4truth
Looking4truth

@MaureenDowney  Is the solution a quota system so that all races are equally represented?  What if (and I'm only asking) one group is responsible for most of the trouble?  Do we do nothing if the school is majority _____________ (fill in the blank)?  Don't all kids deserve the right to go to a safe school with minimal, quickly and appropriately handled disruptions? 


Maureen, to earlier posts, what is the race of the teacher in most of these incidents?  I know that data is kept. 




AlreadySheared
AlreadySheared


@MaureenDowney Alas, I am not buying what you are selling - 'compelling' research by groups with an ax to grind, including our Justice Department.


Let's climb to the pinnacle of criminality, where all subjectivity vanishes in the cold light of reality.

From the same wikipedia I cited below, on homicide:


"Homicide


According to the US Department of Justice, blacks accounted for 52.5% of homicide offenders from 1980 to 2008, with whites 45.3% and "Other" 2.2%. The offending rate for blacks was almost 8 times higher than whites, and the victim rate 6 times higher. Most homicides were intraracial, with 84% of white victims killed by whites, and 93% of black victims killed by blacks"


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Race_and_crime_in_the_United_States


redweather
redweather

@MaureenDowney @Looking4truth ". . . when asked, researchers say they do not believe the race of the teacher dramatically alters discipline rates."


If I were a reporter, that simply wouldn't cut it.  

Astropig
Astropig

@MaureenDowney 

 

"African-American children with no previous time in a juvenile facility are locked up at six times the rate of white kids charged with similar offenses. Looking only at drug cases, the admission rate of black kids to juvenile detention centers is 48 times the rate for whites.

The gap continues once kids are jailed. African-American children are incarcerated an average of 85 days longer than white youth, and Latinos are incarcerated an average of more than 140 days longer than white youth."

But what does this have to do with the schools discipline policies?  Our criminal justice system is stacked in favor of the defendants.When they are incarcerated,they can only done so after exhaustive due process.Should we just set up a parallel legal system for black youth? 

And again-there is no such thing as black disciplinary infractions. There are disciplinary infraction committed by individuals, a large proportion of which happen to be black.The infraction has no race or ethnicity-it is committed and must be dealt with if our schools are to function.


MaureenDowney
MaureenDowney moderator

@Looking4truth @MaureenDowney I have not seen reliable data on teacher race and discipline referrals and rates, although I have attended two conferences on discipline and, when asked, researchers say they do not believe the race of the teacher dramatically alters discipline rates.

I would suspect gender and experience may be greater factors. I have been told by principals that male teachers and more experienced teachers send fewer kids to them.

I also think school leadership plays a role. There is good data showing schools that embrace behavioral interventions and whole school approaches see decreases in discipline problems.


http://www.nasponline.org/publications/booksproducts/hchs3_samples/s4h18_discipline.pdf


I have heard research presentations on Restorative Justice that were very encouraging. 


http://www.weareteachers.com/blogs/post/2015/04/03/restorative-justice-a-different-approach-to-discipline

bu2
bu2

@MaureenDowney

From the article:


Of course, it’s not all cut-and-dried: The sources of racial disparities in treatment, for instance, do not lie exclusively within these larger systems. Black families have been shown to be “skeptical of medical and mental-health research, particularly contested and controversial issues like ADHD,” and are therefore less likely to seek out treatment, while predominantly Latino schools see less medicalized and criminalized discipline, all things being equal. “Some of the research,” Ramey says, “suggests that Hispanics and Hispanic families in Hispanic schools — in particular first-generation immigrants — tend to avoid social control institutions altogether, be it the criminal justice system, the mental-health system, or the medical system,” often due to language barriers, immigration status, and other concerns.


Also, the article doesn't distinguish between Black and economically disadvantaged.  Are Blacks higher when socio-economic status is pulled out?  It also mentions that poorer schools tend to be stricter on discipline.  Blacks are relatively more likely to be in those schools.  And then there's the attitude factor.  That Harvard professor who got arrested for breaking into his own house got arrested because he had a chip on his shoulder instead of cooperating.  That doesn't mean it was right, but it was within his control.  It wasn't racism that got him arrested-it was his own emotional reaction to being questioned.

MaryElizabethSings
MaryElizabethSings

@bu2 

"That Harvard professor who got arrested for breaking into his own house got arrested because he had a chip on his shoulder instead of cooperating."

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

That is a matter of individual interpretation.  It is not fact.  I did not interpret the way you did. 

yet_another_display_name
yet_another_display_name

@MaureenDowney

Do you really think that telling teachers  that they cannot discipline the children due to race quotas will help the children receive a better education?  

This policy is a slow moving disaster in the making, because every time a black child is disciplined, teachers will have to think about their race, while the same is NOT true for white or Asian children.   Now, basic psychology will tell you that regardless of how good the average teacher is (which in my experience as a parent has been very good), that association is a very, very toxic one.